The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been conclusively identified as the major risk factor for cervical cancer. It is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Two human papillomavirus (HPV) types (16 and 18) are responsible for nearly 50% of high grade cervical pre-cancers. Although most HPV infections clear up on their own and most pre-cancerous lesions resolve spontaneously, there is a risk for all women that HPV infection may become chronic and pre-cancerous lesions progress to invasive cervical cancer. Currently, more than 150 HPV types are well characterized which are classified as high risk and low risk types depending on the risk of progression from mild dysplasia to cancer.